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The Role Of Technology In Modernizing Nigerian Immigration Procedures

Oyetola Muyiwa Atoyebi, SAN FCIArb. (U.K)
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Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, boasts a rich cultural tapestry and a diverse population. With its growing economy and vibrant society, it has become an attractive destination for travelers from around the world. However, to maintain national security and regulate entry and exit, Nigeria has established a comprehensive set of immigration procedures. These procedures are designed to govern the movement of foreign nationals in and out of the country, ensuring compliance with the law and safeguarding national interests. In this article, we delve into an overview of the immigration procedures in Nigeria, the challenges faced, and the possible technological innovations that could be incorporated into the system to modernize these procedures.


The Nigeria Immigration Service (NIS) is a government agency that has been charged with the responsibility of migration management in Nigeria, and the immigration service is saddled with the mandate [1] and responsibility of the following, according to the Act establishing it in Nigeria:

Visa Requirements: Nigeria requires most foreign nationals to obtain a visa to enter the country. Visa requirements vary based on the purpose of the visit, such as tourism, business, study, or work. Travelers seeking to visit Nigeria usually apply for a visa at a Nigerian embassy or consulate in their home country. Once the visa application is approved, the Nigerian embassy or consulate issues the visa on the applicant’s passport. Nonetheless, Nigeria also offers Visa on Arrival (VOA) for certain nationalities and under specific conditions. The VOA facility is available to two categories of travelers [2]:

Frequently travelled high-net-worth investors with business interests in Nigeria
citizens of African countries.

Entry and Exit Requirements: Travelers must present their valid passport, visa, and other required documentation when entering and exiting Nigeria. Immigration officials may conduct inspections and verify the purpose of the visit. Nigerian immigration authorities control the entry and exit of travelers at international airports, land border crossings, and seaports.
Customs Declarations: Travelers are required to declare any items subject to customs duties and taxes upon entry into Nigeria. This includes declaring the amount of currency and valuables being brought into the country.

Registration with Local Authorities: In some cases, foreign nationals are required to register with local authorities or the Nigerian Immigration Service during their stay in Nigeria, especially if they plan to stay for an extended period or for employment purposes.

Deportation and Removal: Individuals who violate immigration laws, overstay their visas, or engage in illegal activities in Nigeria may face deportation and removal proceedings.

Asylum and Refugee Status: Nigeria is a signatory to international conventions relating to refugees and asylum seekers. The country has procedures in place to handle asylum applications and refugee status determinations.


In recent times, the Nigerian immigration service has progressed in modernizing immigration procedures in Nigeria, which has brought about a wide range of benefits for the country, its citizens, and visitors. Some key advantages include:

Enhanced National Security: Modernization has strengthened border security, making it more difficult for individuals with malicious intent to enter the country. Advanced technology, such as biometric data collection and real-time monitoring, has helped identify potential security threats.

Efficiency and Streamlined Processing: Technology-driven procedures have significantly reduced processing time for travellers, both at entry and exit points. This enhances the overall travel experience and minimizes inconveniences.
Enhanced Revenue Collection: Advanced systems enhance the efficient collection of immigration fees and taxes, contributing to government revenue and reducing evasion.

Compliance with International Standards:[3] Modernization aligns Nigeria’s immigration procedures with international standards, improving diplomatic relations and cooperation with other countries.
Environmental Benefits: Digitization has reduced the need for paper-based processes, contributing to environmental sustainability and reducing the consumption of resources.


Bureaucracy and Red Tape: The immigration process in Nigeria can be plagued by bureaucratic hurdles and lengthy administrative procedures, leading to delays and frustration for both travellers and officials.
Inadequate Infrastructure: Immigration checkpoints, border posts, and facilities may lack modern infrastructure and technology, hindering the efficient processing of travellers and potentially compromising security.
Visa Processing Delays: Visa applications and processing times can be slow and inconsistent, discouraging foreign investment and tourism.

Inefficient Data Management: Poor data management systems may lead to errors, lost records, and difficulties in tracking the entry and exit of travellers, posing security risks.

Illegal Immigration: Nigeria faces challenges related to illegal immigration, with individuals attempting to enter the country without proper documentation, which can strain resources and security efforts.
Border Security: Nigeria has vast land borders, making it challenging to maintain effective border security. Porous borders can be exploited by criminal organizations and smugglers.


Technology can play a crucial role in streamlining the verification of travel documents and visas in Nigeria, making the process more efficient, accurate, and secure[5]. Some ways technology can be employed to achieve this include:

Electronic Visa Application and Processing: Implementing a working online visa application system will allow travellers to submit their visa applications electronically. This system could include features for document uploads, online payment, and appointment scheduling, reducing the need for in-person visits to embassies or consulates.
Biometric Data Collection: Utilizing biometric technologies, such as fingerprint and facial recognition, at immigration checkpoints can verify travelers’ identities quickly and accurately. Biometric data can be linked to visa records for identity confirmation.
Machine-Readable Passports and Visas: Issuing of machine-readable passports and visas with embedded electronic chips could enable rapid data retrieval and verification at border control points, reducing processing times.
Real-Time Data Sharing: Establishing secure and real-time data-sharing mechanisms among immigration authorities, airlines, and other relevant agencies would allow for the instant verification of visa statuses, travel history, and watchlist checks.
Data Analytics and AI: Employing data analytics and artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms can help identify patterns of fraudulent documents or suspicious travel behaviour, allowing immigration officials to prioritize inspections.
Mobile Verification Apps: Immigration officials can use mobile apps equipped with scanning capabilities to verify documents on the go, reducing the need for travellers to queue in long lines.
These technological solutions could significantly improve the efficiency and accuracy of travel document and visa verification processes. This not only benefits immigration authorities but also enhances the overall experience for travellers, reduces the risk of fraud and security threats, and promotes Nigeria as a modern and secure destination for visitors and investors.


In conclusion, the immigration procedures in Nigeria are a vital component of the country’s governance and security framework. They play a pivotal role in regulating the entry and exit of travellers, safeguarding national interests, and facilitating legitimate trade and tourism. The modernization of immigration procedures through the adoption of advanced technologies and streamlined processes holds immense promise. This transformation can enhance national security, improve efficiency, and create a more positive experience for travellers. As Nigeria continues to evolve and modernize its immigration procedures, it has the potential to become a shining example of efficient and secure border control in the African region, ultimately contributing to the nation’s growth and global standing.


immigration, technology, technology in immigration, Nigerian immigration service


As Nigeria continues to evolve and modernize its immigration procedures, it has the potential to become a shining example of efficient and secure border control in the African region, ultimately contributing to the nation’s growth and global standing.

AUTHOR: Oyetola Muyiwa Atoyebi, SAN FCIArb. (U.K)

Mr. Oyetola Muyiwa Atoyebi, SAN is the Managing Partner of O. M. Atoyebi, S.A.N & Partners (OMAPLEX Law Firm).

Mr. Atoyebi has expertise in and a vast knowledge of Technology Law and this has seen him advise and represent his vast clientele in a myriad of high-level transactions. He holds the honour of being the youngest lawyer in Nigeria’s history to be conferred with the rank of Senior Advocate of Nigeria.

He can be reached at

CONTRIBUTOR: Betseabasi Asuquo

Betseabasi is a member of the Dispute Resolution Team at OMAPLEX Law Firm. She also holds commendable legal expertise in Technology Law.

She can be reached at

[1]Nigerian Immigration Services, ‘Our Core Mandate” Available on:,persons%20entering%20or%20leaving%20Nigeria accessed on 20/9/2023

[2] Nigerian Immigration Services, Visa on Arrival Process. Available on: accessed on 20/9/2023

[3] Ogunkanmi, A. T (2020) “The Impact of Information Technology on Recruitment and Training: A Case of Nigeria Immigration Service”. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management Vol 8, Issue 7, pg 326

[4] Nwachukwu A.C (2014), The Nigeria Immigration Service and the Challenges of Immigration (1986-2012). A Thesis Submitted to University of Lagos School of Postgraduate Studies.

[5] Lai, P.C. (2017). “The literature reviews of technology adoption models and theories for novelty technology.” Journal of information Systems and Technology Management. 14(1), pp 21-38

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